BACHELOR DEGREE:
Admission Requirements
Prospective candidates to the program must satisfy the general requirements for admission to the university as stipulated in Egerton University Statutes of 2013, Article 39 (2) and ISO Procedure for Admission and Registration of students DOC No. EU/AA/OP/03
Schedule of courses
year 1 semester 1 schedule of courses
Index  Course Code  Course Title  Credit Factor 

1 

PHYSICS PRACTICAL I  2.0 
2 

MECHANICS  3.0 
3 

HEAT AND THERMODYNAMICS  3.0 
year 1 semester 2 schedule of courses
Index  Course Code  Course Title  Credit Factor 

1 

PHYSICS PRACTICAL I  2.0 
2 

GEOMETRICAL OPTICS  3.0 
3 

INTRODUCTION TO QUANTUM MECHANICS  3.0 
year 2 semester 1 schedule of courses
Index  Course Code  Course Title  Credit Factor 

1 

PHYSICS PRACTICAL III  2.0 
2 

WAVES AND OSCILLATIONS  3.0 
3 

ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM I  3.0 
year 2 semeser 2 schedule of courses
Index  Course Code  Course Title  Credit Factor 

1 

PHYSICS PRACTICALS IV  2.0 
2 

INTRODUCTION TO MATERIALS SCIENCE  3.0 
3 

BASIC ELECTRONICS  3.0 
year 3 semester 1 schedule of courses
Index  Course Code  Course Title  Credit Factor 

1 

PHYSICS PRACTICAL V  2.0 
2 

QUANTUM MECHANICS I  3.0 
3 

ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM II  3.0 
4 

MATHEMATICAL PHYSICS I  3.0 
5 

THERMAL AND STATISTICAL PHYSICS  3.0 
6 

ASTROPHYSICS  3.0 
7 

BIOPHYSICS  3.0 
year 3 semester 2 schedule of courses
Index  Course Code  Course Title  Credit Factor 

1 

PHYSICS PRACTICAL VI  2.0 
2 

ANALOGUE ELECTRONICS  3.0 
3 

PHYSICAL OPTICS  3.0 
4 

CLASSICAL MECHANICS  3.0 
5 

COMMUNICATION ELECTRONICS I  3.0 
6 

INTRODUCTION TO GEOPHYSICS  3.0 
7 

MOLECULAR PHYSICS  3.0 
8 

INDUSTRIAL ATTACHMENT  3.0 
year 4 semester 1 schedule of courses
Index  Course Code  Course Title  Credit Factor 

1 

PHYSICS PROJECT  2.0 
2 

PHYSICS PRACTICAL VII  2.0 
3 

SOLID STATE PHYSICS  3.0 
4 

ATOMIC AND NUCLEAR PHYSICS  3.0 
5 

QUANTUM MECHANICS II  3.0 
6 

APPLIED GEOPHYSICS  3.0 
7 

ENVIRONMENTAL AND RENEWABLE ENERGY PHYSICS  3.0 
8 

DIGITAL ELECTRONICS  3.0 
9 

COMMUNICATION ELECTRONICS II  3.0 
year 4 semester 2 schedule of courses
Index  Course Code  Course Title  Credit Factor 

1 

PHYSICS PRACTICAL VIII  2.0 
2 

DIGITAL ELECTRONICS  3.0 
3 

ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY  3.0 
4 

MATHEMATICAL PHYSICS II  3.0 
5 

LASER PHYSICS  3.0 
6 

HIGH ENERGY PHYSICS  3.0 
7 

PLASMA PHYSICS  3.0 
8 

AERONOMY AND PALEOMAGNETISM  3.0 
9 

MICROPROCESSOR II  3.0 
PHYSICS COURSE DESCRIPTIONS
year 1 semester 1 course descriptions
Measurements and uncertainties. Normal distribution of errors. Acceleraton due to gravity. Determination of moment of inertia. Determination of Young's modulus. Determination of the specific heat capacity of liquids and solids. Measurement of thermal conductivity of a bad conductor.
Vectors: composition and resolution of coplanar vectorss. forces and equilibrium. Freebody techniques. Moments, couple and torque. Particle kinematics. Newton's laws and particle dynamics. Circular moton of particles. Work and energy. Linear and angular momenta. Conservation laws. Potential energy. Central forces. Planetary motion. Mechanics of systems of particles and rigid bodies.
Temperature and temperature scales. Thermal expanson of solids. Quantity of heat. Heat transposrt. Thermal equilibrium and zeroth law. Heat and work. First law of thermodynamics. Thermodynamic processes. Ideal gas laws. Van der Waal's equation of state. Carnot heat engines and refrigerators. Second law of thermodyamics. Entropy.
year 1 semester 2 course descriptions
Reflection at flat and curved surfaces. Refraction throught a prism. Verification of Snell's law. Investigation of liquid lenses. Measurement of specific charge of an electron using deflection and fine tubes. Investigation of photoelectric effect. Millikan's oil drop experiment. Observation of hydrogen spectrum.
Rectilinear propagation of light. Laws of feflection and refraction. Fremat's principle. Plane surfaces and prisms. Spherical surfaces. Lenses. Spherical mirrors. Lens aberration. Optical equipment (microscopes, telescopes, prism binoculars, camera and prism spectrometer.
Development of modern atomic theory. Failure of classical theories and experimental basis for quantum theory (black body radiation,heat capacity, photoelectric effect, Compton effect, etc.) Particlewave duality of matter. DeBroglie waves. Uncertainty principle. Structure nad properties of atoms. the Bohr model of the atom. Emission and absorption spectra. Radioactivity. Xrays.
year 2 semester 1 course descriptions
Resonance tube experiment. Melde's experiment. Free and damped oscillations. Inertia table. velocity of sound in air using interference. A simple method of determining the resistance of a voltmeter. Investigation of the field due to a long current carrying conductor using a tangent magnetometer. calibration of cathode ray oscilloscope as A.C. voltmeter. Absolute meaasurement of current. Determination of horizontal component of earth's magnetic flux density using the tangent galvanometer. Use of the oscilloscope for frequency measurement. Investigation of discharge of a capacitor. comparison of e.m.f.'s of two cells using a potentiometer. Magnetic field of Helmholtz coils. Y2S1(PREQUISITE: PHYS 110 AND PHYS 120).
PHYS 211: WAVES AND OSCILLLATIONS (45/0/0;CF:3.0)
Periodic motions. Superposition of periodic motions. The simple harmonic oscillator. Damped harmonic oscillator. Forced oscillations and resonance. Coupled oscillations., noormal coordinates, degrees of freedom and normal modes of vibration. Transverse waves. The wave equation. Characteristic impedance of waves on a string. Reflection and transmission coefficients. Longitudinal waves. Acoustic phenomena; interference and beats. Standing waves and eigenfrequencies. Acoustic measurements and applications. Doppler effect. Group and phase velocity. Introduction to Fourier analysis.
PHYS 212: ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM I (45/0/0;CF:3.0)
Electrostatics: electric charge, Coulomb's law. Electric field, lines of electric force and electric flux. Gauss's law. Electric potential and electric potential energy. Capacitors and capacitance. Energy storage in capacitors. Effect of dielectrics on capacitance. D.C. circuits; currnet, resistance, Ohm's law. Kirchoff's laws. Network theorems. Voltage measurement. Potentiometer. Wheatstone's bridge. Magnetic field. Magnetic flux. Foreceon moving charge in a magnetic field. Torque on a currrent loop. Magnetic dipole. Magnetic induction. Faraday's laws of magnetic induction. Self and mutual induction. Hysteresis. Energy in magnetic fields.
year 2 semester 2 course descriptions
PHYS 220: PHYSICS PRACTICAL IV (45/0/0;CF:3.0)
Young's modulus, Elastic constants of a thick wire by Searle's method. Energy in a spring. Viscosity of a liquids. Magnetic susceptibility,specific heat capacity of solids, liquids. Coefficient of expansivity. Bragg's constant on Xrays, Diffraction of Xrays. Fluid mechanics experiment. Investigation of intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors (HallEffect). Semiconductor diode characteristics., rectification. Transistor characteristic. Feedback amplifier.
Y2S2(PREREQUISITE:PHYS 210)
PHYS 221: INTRODUCTION TO MATERIALS SCIENCE (45/0/0;CF:3.0)
Molecules and bonding. Interatomic forces. States of matter. Crystalline and amorphous structures. Liquids and liquid crystals. Gases (ideal and nearly ideal). Interatomic potentials. Kinetic theory. Maxwell's distribution. rms speed and gas pressure. Gas laws. Equation of state. Specific heat. Thermal conductivity. Crystal structures:symmetry, Bravais Lattice. Radial distribution functions. Xray diffraction. Miller indices. Cohesion of ionic crystals. Madelung's ] constant. Surface tension and surface energy of liquids. Application to convex surfaces. Capillarity and suction. Viscosity: Poiseuille's formula. Stokes' method. Laminar flow and Bernoulli's equation. Elastic properties of solids:Hydrostatic properties of fluids. Y2S2
PHYS 222: BASIC ELECTRONICS (45/0/0;CF:3.0)
Introduction to semiconductor physics. Energy bands. Electrons and holes. The pn junction biasing. Semiconductor diodes. Power supplies. Junction transistors (characteristics and operations). Introduction to transistor amplifiers. Transistor amplifiers. Types of amplifiers. Current and voltage amplifiers. Feedback in amplifiers.
year 3 semester 1 course descriptions
PHYS 310: PHYSICS PRACTICAL V (45/0/0;CF:3.0)
Resistance measuring bridge. LC measuring bridge. Series resonance. RC filters. Inductance of a solenoid. AC bridge. Absolute measurement of current.
Y3S1 (Prerequisite: PHYS 220) (45/0/0;CF:3.0)
PHYS 311: QUANTUM MECHANICS I (45/0/0;CF:3.0)
Hamiltonian operators. Schrodinger equation. Born's probability density. Potential barriers and tunneling. Square well potential. Harmonic oscillator. Particle in a box and in a sphere. Hydrogen atom and atomic orbitals. Postulates of quantum mechanics. Hermitian operators. Complementarity. Uncertainty principle. Matrix mechanics. Angular momentum operators. Eigen values and eigen functions of angular momentum and spin. KlebschGordon series. (PREREQUISITES: PHYS 110, PHYS 121, PHYS 210)
PHYS 312: ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM II (45/0/0;CF:3.0)
Gauss' law and its applications. Electric dipoles. Dielectrics. Modified Gauss' law. Solutions to Laplace's and Poisson's equations. Maxwell's electromagnetic equations. Electromagnetic radiation. A.C. circuits: generational of sinusoidal waveforms, rms value. AC in resistors, capacitors and inductors. Series and parallel LCR circuits. Resonance. Power in AC circuits. AC bridges, impedance and admittance. Filters. Delay lines. Transformers. Transmission lines. (PREREQUISITE: PHYS 212)
PHYS 313: MATHEMATICAL PHYSICS I (45/0/0;CF:3.0)
Vector calculus: Differentiation, ordinary and partial derivatives. Integration; Stokes' theorem and divergence theorem. Orthogonal curvilinear coordinate systems;cylindrical and spherical polar coordinates. Linear differential equations: definition, power series solutions of 1st and 2nd order ODEs. Special functions: Gamma, Beta, Bessel and Associated Legendre functions. Orthonormal functions. SturmLiouville equation. Eigenfunction expansions. Complex analysis: complex variables, complex calculus, differentiation, integration, analyticity, Cauchy's theorem.
PHYS 314: THERMAL AND STATISTICAL PHYSICS (45/0/0;CF:3.0)
Maxwell's equations. Introduction to the third law of thermodynamics. Probability state of a system. Average value of physical quantities. Micro and macrostates. Ensembles. Principle of equipartition of energy. Gibb's distribution. MaxwellBoltzmann distribution. BoseEinstein statistics. Statistical meaning of entropy. Degeneracy in gases obeying quantumstatistics. (PREREQUISITE:PHYS 112)
PHYS 315: ASTROPHYSICS (45/0/0;CF:3.0)
Structure, origin and evolution of the universe. Galaxies,stars and planets. Enigmas of modern astronomy; quasars, black holes and pulsars. Theory and use of optical telescopes in interpretation of basic observational data to determine the physical properties of planets and stars.
PHYS 316: BIOPHYSICS (45/0/0;CF:3.0)
Molecular biophysics. Interaction of electromagnetic radiation with biological molecules. Isotropic techniques. Classical physics of cellular processes. Biophysical approaches to photosynthesis, photobiology. Physical processes of osmosis. Electronnerve stimulation and conduction. Memory mechanisms. Mass transport. Kinetic theory. Diffusion processes through membranes. biophysical measurement techniques. Radioactive transfer of energyboundary layers.
year 3 semester 2 course descriptions
PHYS 320: PHYSICS PRACTICAL VI
Interference (Newton's rings, Lloyd's mirrors, Young's double slit) diffraction. Absorption specturm of iodine. Observation of the spectrum of atomic hydrogen. Boolean algebra and logic gates. Sequential circuits (flipflops, registers, counters). Geophysics experiments. Linear computing experiments. Y3S2 (PREREQUISITE:PHYS 310)
PHYS 321: ANALOGUE ELECTRONICS (45/0/0;CF:3.0)
Transistor biasing. Low and high frequency models. Analysis and application to amplifiers and oscillators. Small signal amplifiers(bipolar and FET). Opamp and its application. Multistage amplifiers  coupling techniques. Tuned voltage amplifiers. Modulation and demodulation. Y4S2(PREREQUISITES: PHYS 221)
PHYS 322: PHYSICAL OPTICS (45/0/0;CF:3.0)
Theory of interference. Fresnel and Fraunhofer diffraction. Zone plate. Diffraction at a straight edge and at a number of parallel slits. Resolving power of optical instruments. Fresnel's explanation of optical activity. Polarimeters. (PREREQUISITES: PHYS 121, PHYS 211)
PHYS 323: CLASSICAL MECHANICS (45/0/0;CF:3.0)
Rigid body dynamics. Concept of generalized coordinates and degrees of freedom. Variation principle. Hamilton's equations. Lagrange's functions and equations. Canonical transformations. HamiltonJacobi theory. Special relativity.(PREREQUISITES: PHYS 111)
PHYS 324: COMMUNICATION ELECTRONICS I (45/0/0;CF:3.0)
Transmission lines: Types, parameters, voltage and current relations, distortion and attenuation factor. Antenna: field, effective resistance, efficiency, loop antennae, self and mutual impedances, measurements, transmitting and receiving antenna. Propagation of electromagnetic waves.Y4S2(PREREQUISITES: PHYS 311, PHYS 320)
PHYS 325: INTRODUCTION TO GEOPHYSICS (45/0/0;CF:3.0)
The solar system. Earth as a planet and its rotation. Shape of the Earth. Equation of time. The reference spheroid and geoid. Gravitation: International gravity formula. Isostacy: measurement, reduction and interpretation of gravity data for anomalies. Seismology: seismicity of the earth; body and surface waves and their propagation in earth, seismology and the earth's structure, earthquakes (their measurement and precautions). Geomagnetism: earth's magnetic field and its variation. Magnetic surveys( methods of data collectioni, reduction and interpretation for earth's structure). Thermal properties of the earth, heat flow studies. Geodynamics: theory of continental drift, seafloor spreading and plate tectonics, earth's surface features. Y3S1
PHYS 326: MOLECULAR PHYSICS (45/0/0;CF:3.0)
Molecular formation. Classification of molecules. Molecular structure and spectra. Electron affinities. Polarization. Magnetic and electric multiple moments. Currents and spins of molecules. The hydrogen molecule. Rotational energy levels and spectra. Vibrational energy levels and spectra. Electronic spectra and molecules. Raman spectra and molecular structure. Y3S2. (PREREQUISITE: PHYS 221)
year 4 semester 1 course descriptions
PHYS 411: PHYSICS PROJECT
Students should take a project from any of the areas covered in the syllabus. A project can also be assigned to the student in the department.
PHYS 410: PHYSICS PRACTICAL VII
Wavelength of Xrays, Hall effect, elastic properties of solids, nuclear physics experiments, radioactivity, micro controller program and projects, communication systems (modulation), renewable energy experiments, geophysics experiments.
PHYS 412: SOLID STATE PHYSICS (45/0/0;CF:3.0)
Review of atomic bonding, crystallinity and forms of solids. Brillouin zones. Lattice dynamics: elastic waves and phonons, phonon statistics, vibrational modes and spectrum. Specific heat band structures. Electronphonon interaction. Impurity states and nature of lattice defects. Characteristic properties of dielectrics, metals, semiconductors and magnetic solids. Cooperative phenomena. Superconductivity. Mode of electronic transport in solids. Ferro, para, and diamagnetics. Application to solid state devices. Electrooptics and lasers. Y4S1
PHYS 413: ATOMIC AND NUCLEAR PHYSICS (45/0/0;CF:3.0)
Models of the atom: Sommerfeld's relativistic model and vector model. Coupling schemes. Normal and anomalous Zeeman effects. Lande gfactor. Spectral notations. One electron spectra. Two electron spectra. Xray spectra. Atomic nucleus, systematics of stable nuclei. Natural and artificial radioactivity. Nuclear detectors. Nuclear models (shell and liquid drop models). Mass and isotropic abundance of nuclei. Nuclear stability. Nuclear forces. Neutron sources, slow down chain reacting pile and their interaction. Nuclear fission and power reactors. Nuclear fusion. Radiation monitoring and safety measures. Applications of nuclear physics. Isotopes and applications in medicine, agriculture and industry. Y4S1(PREREQUISITE: PHYS 122)
PHYS 414: QUANTUM MECHANICS II (45/0/0;CF:3.0)
Time independent perturbation theory(degenerate and nondegenerate). Variation theory. W.K.B. approximation . The HellmanFeynman theorem. Time dependent perturbation theory. Transition and Fermi golden rule. Einstein transition probabilities. Spectrum of atomic hydrogen. Selection rules. Spin orbit coupling.Structure of helium atom. Pauli principle and Slater detetminant. Zeeman effect and Stark effect. Theory of scattering (classical and quantum). Born approximation. Method of partial waves. (PREREQUISITE: PHYS 310)
PHYS 415: APPLIED GEOPHYSICS (45/0/0;CF:3.0)
Gravitational, magnetic seismic and electrical properties of the earth. Measurements, data reduction and geological interpretation for earth structure, minerals and groundwater. Y4S1 (PREREQUISITE: PHYS 324)
PHYS 416: ENVIRONMENTAL AND RENEWABLE ENERGY PHYSICS (45/0/0;CF:3.0)
The concept of energy. Global energy supply and consumption patterns. Energy conservation practices. World energy sources: fossil fuels, nuclear, solar, geothermal, wind, water. Ocean thermal gradient. Tides. Biomass and wood fuel. The global environment. Physics of atmospheric processes (eg. solar terrestrial radiation). Transport process in atmosphere. Water, air, enery balance and hydrological cycle. Water vapour. Heat exchange. Heat conduction in soils, pollution problems. Applications of physics to medical, biological and environmental problems. Y4S1(PREREQUISITE: PHYS 112)
PHYS 416: MICROPROCESSOR I (45/0/0;CF:3.0)
Sequential logic circuits. Flipflops, registers and counters. Data representation. Register transfers and microoperations. Basic computer organization and design. Instruction codes and execution of instructions. I/O and interrupts. Design of computers, central processor organization, processor bus organization, ALU, instruction formats. Microprocessor organization and microprogram control. Y4S1(PREREQUISITES:PHYS 221)
PHYS 417: COMMUNICATION ELECTRONICS II (45/0/0;CF:3.0)
Sequential logic circuits. Flipflops, registers and counters. Data representation. Register transfers and microoperations. Basic computer organization and design. Instruction codes and execution of instructions. I/O and interrupts. Design of computers, central processor organization, processor bus organization, ALU, instruction formats. Microprocessor organization and microprogram control. Y4S1(PREREQUISITES:PHYS 221)
year 4 semester 2 course descriptions
PHYS 420: PHYSICS PRACTICAL VIII
Opamp. Filters. Transistor biasing, small signal amplifiers, multistage amplifiers. Microwave experiments. Y4S1
PHYS 421: DIGITAL ELECTRONICS (45/0/0;CF:3.0)
Number systems. Codes and number representation. Sign magnitude numbers. The (r1) complement, r's complement. Boolean algebra and logic gates. Laws of Boolean algebra and their conversion into logic diagrams. DeMorgan's theorem. Reduction of Boolean expressions, sum of products equations and logic circuits. Simplification using Karnaugh maps. Arithmetic circuits. Exclusive OR (XOR) gates. Half adders. Full adders and parallel operation of a fulladder. (PREREQUISITE: PHYS 222)
PHYS 422: ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY (45/0/0;CF:3.0)
Magnetic fields in matter: magnetization, magnetic intensity, magnets. Electromagnetic waves. Maxwell's equations. Plane waves in isotropic dielectrics and conducting media. Reflection and refraction of plane waves at dielectric and metallic boundaries. Polarization. Waveguides. EM radiation Scattering and dispersion. Electromagnetism. Y4S2(PREREQUISITES: PHYS 311, PHYS 321)
PHYS 423: MATHEMATICAL PHYSICS II (45/0/0;CF:3.0)
Partial differential equations: definition, classification; elliptic, parabolic, hyperbolic. The partial differential equations of physics: wave equation, heat equation, Laplace's equation, Poisson's equation, Helmholtz equation. Method of separation of variables. Integral equations: definition, classification; degenerate and difference kernels, Volterra and Fredholm equations of the 1st and 2nd kind. Convolution integrals; Fourier and Laplace transforms. Conversion of differential to integral equations. Green's function and applications. Analytic functions. Conformal mapping and integrals. Cauchy's theorem and integral. Laurent series. Singularities and residues. Cauchy's residue theorem. Poles. Physical applications. Tensors. Simple ideas of orthonormal sets of functions and eigen function expansions. Group theory. Heat flow equation. Ordinary differential equations. Wave equation. Variational methods. Normalization techniques. Y4S2 (PREREQUISITE: PHYS 312)
PHYS 424: LASER PHYSICS (45/0/0;CF:3.0)
Coherence. Purity of spectral lines. Stimulated emission. Einstein's coefficients. Pumping and population inversion. Cavity resonators and shaping of a beam. Ruby laser. Gas lasers. Dye lasers. Semiconductor lasers. High monochromaticity and high directionality of laser radiations. Applications of lasers in industry and other fields.
PHYS 425: HIGH ENERGY PHYSICS (45/0/0;CF:3.0)
Discovery of elementary particles (photons, mesons, leptons, quarks and baryons). Particle classification and physical properties. Interaction particles and energy loss. The weakly interacting and strongly interacting particles. Elementary particle dynamics. Particle accelerators. Y4S2
PHYS 426: PLASMA PHYSICS (45/0/0;CF:3.0)
Introductory concepts. Plasma parameters. Governing equations. Kinetic theory. Gas dynamics. Continuity equations. Dynamics of particles, orbit theory. Individual and collective motion of charged particles in electric, magnetic fields and ionized gases. Hydromagnetic waves. Plasma stability. Properties of equilibrium plasma. Measurement techniques. Elementary theory of charge conductivity. Astrophysical plasma. Laboratory devices including gaseous lasers. Thermonuclear fusion. Y4S2
PHYS 427: AERONOMY AND PALEOMAGNETISM (45/0/0;CF:3.0)
General features of the geomagnetic field. Rock magnetism: methods and techniques of measurement. Reversals of the earth's magnetic field. Seafloor spreading; plate tectonics. Apparent polar wandering. Origins of the earth magnetic field. The dynamo theory. Applications of paleomagnetism. Depth of penetration methods. Rock dating. The Chapman production function. D layer, E layer, F layer: Ionosounding. Magnetic properties of the earth's interior. Y4S2 (PREREQUISITE: PHYS 413)
PHYS 428: MICROPROCESSOR II (45/0/0;CF:3.0)
Microprocessor interfacing. I/O organization, peripheral devices, I/O interface. Data transfer DMA, priority interrupt. I/O processor. Multiprocessor system organization. Data communication processor. Memory organization. Auxilliary memory. Memory hierarchy. Associative memory and other types of memories. Memory management hardware.